Table of Contents
Voice recordings are privacy-sensitive data; please use them respectfully and for academic purposes only.



Minimal stress pairs

  • List of minimal pairs differing only in lexical stress
  • An example from English: FOREbear [noun] ‘ancestor’ vs. forBEAR [verb] ’to be patient’
  • Lead author: Hans Rutger Bosker
  • Download the Excel file here
  • Dutch, Italian, Spanish, English, German (each language in an individual sheet)
  • The two members of a pair are primarily distinguished by stress. However, there may also occassionally be subtle segmental differences involved (e.g., vowel reduction in unstressed syllables in English and German)
  • Sources and further references listed at the top of each individual sheet
  • CC BY 4.0 license

Other corpora

Many other speech, video, and picture corpora are publicly available nowadays. Please see Other resources for some examples that we ourselves have used in the past.